OMICRON Magazine


OMICRON electronics GmbH, Oberes Ried 1, 6833 Klaus (AT) OMICRON electronics GmbH up! consulting, Industriering 10, 9491 Ruggell (FL) OMICRON electronics GmbH, (p. 4, 6–12, 14–17, 24–26, 31, 33, 35, 36, 39, 43), Adobe Stock (p. 9–11, 42), Marke Elektronik (p. 14), Mejdaf (p. 15), T&D Technologies (p. 16), Energy Solutions (p. 16), ACINEL (p. 38) Publisher Responsible for content Editorial team and implementation Picture credits E-mail to the editorial team DEAR READERS, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Turkey may not all be near each other geographically. Still, one thing that connects them is the energy industry’s interest in the compact, battery-­ powered COMPANO 100. In the interview on page 14, we talked to our Sales Partners in the Middle East and Africa about why the compact test set is in such high demand. Our international OMICRON Academy team has developed an entire portfolio of webinars in a short amount of time. So now you can access our learning content anywhere, anytime. Read about what you can learn from more than 45 free webinar recordings on page 21. When you began working in the energy industry, I’m sure you learned about the critical factors that go into reliable condition assessments. E. g., performing tests correctly and evaluating the results with precision. So that’s nothing new. However, what is new is that machine learning makes it possible to compare test results using algorithms based on expert knowledge and large amounts of data. Would you like to know more? Then turn to page 40. As much as machine learning can open new doors for us, knowledgeable experts are just as significant. In the article on page 6, we spoke to Ozan Dayanc. He discovered some rather alarming results when running security assessments with the StationGuard Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Learn more about Ozan’s journey and how to avoid the most common security risks. As you know, we love discussing a wide variety of topics with our customers and colleagues. So we’re thrilled to announce that our Energy Talks podcast has reached more than 3,400 subscribers this year!! We want to thank you for the attention our podcast has been receiving! On page 12, you can find exciting facts and figures about previous episodes. If you have any feedback about this issue, please let me know – I look forward to hearing from you. Enjoy reading! Lia Thum OMICRON Magazine Project Lead 2

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 Isaac Newton «What we know is a drop. What we don’t know is an ocean.» 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS Higher data quality with artificial intelligence Application knowledge “to go” 40 21 COMPANO 100 – Rocking the Middle East and Africa Security assessment findings in substations and power plants 6 14 4

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 NEWS 36 … it just keeps on growing 15 Years of our Protection Testing Library REGIONAL 38 On site: OMICRON in Slovenia David Bucaj from ACINEL gives us his insight into the power sector BACKGROUND 12 Prick up your ears! Energy Talks celebrates one year on the air 21 Application knowledge “to go” Webinar recordings from the OMICRON Academy CUSTOMER STORIES 14 Rocking the Middle East and Africa COMPANO 100 captures new markets in a flash EVENTS 44 What’s going on PRODUCTS AND TECHNOLOGY 6 Security assessment findings in substations and power plants Frequently occurring risks encountered while traveling around the world 9 Digital transformation Ongoing changes caused by digital technology 18 From newcomer to technology leader 10 Years of CIBANO 500 24 When an outage is costly Efficient testing for ensuring fault-free high-speed transfer systems 27 A powerful combination for power transformer testing In-depth on-load tap changer analysis with TESTRANO 600 and PTM 4.90 30 Reducing the network load in digital substations With configurable datasets in Sampled Values according to IEC 61869-9 32 Observing partial discharge over time MONTESTO 200 is our portable system for temporary online PD monitoring and trending insulation status between diagnostic checks. 40 Higher data quality with artificial intelligence 5

SECURITY ASSESSMENT FINDINGS IN SUBSTATIONS AND POWER PLANTS Frequently occurring risks encountered while traveling around the world About the author Ozan Dayanc is an OT security engineer, product specialist, and technical support member at OMICRON. He shares his insights about the protection of power utility automation networks, which he garnered assessing OT networks around the globe. At the end of 2020, I was contacted by a colleague who tasked me with creating a security assessment report for one of our customers using StationGuard our Intrusion Detection System (IDS). I received engineering files from said customer and was familiarized with the utility’s network architecture. These documents always constitute the conventional basis for a security assessment before my colleagues and I continue our assessment on-site. The data from my first security assessment proved highly unexpected to substation engineers and 6

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 IT specialists. Among the risks which our assessment brought to light were multiple unnoticed external connections, unexpected devices in the network, outdated firmware, unsuccessful RTU operations, configuration errors, and issues with the network and its redundancy protocol (RSTP). Since then, we have conducted (and improved on) many security assessments worldwide. In addition to substations, we’ve also conducted these assessments for power plants and control centers, including utilities with IEC 61850, IEC 60870-5-104, DNP3, Modbus TCP/IP, and many other IT protocols. The findings from our security assessments were always interesting and, sometimes, alarming. In the following text, I’ve highlighted some frequently occurring risks that I have encountered in recent years: OUTDATED FIRMWARE with known vulnerabilities In every security assessment, I come across outdated firmware versions. As part of our assessment, we provide a passively discovered asset inventory to the utility engineers and IT experts. We augment the asset information by importing engineering files with more details, like the software version, hardware configuration, and serial numbers. This asset inventory is a sound basis for performing vulnerability and risk analysis. 26 updates available EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS Power plants and control centers with remote connections from the corporate IT network always have the highest risk of a cyberattack. While assessing a Latin American substation network, we captured the activity of multiple clients with external IP addresses. This utility allowed their engineers to connect and configure IEDs from home using a remote connection (VPN tunnel). One finding that concerned the IT security officers was an IP and a MAC address which weren’t recognized or documented by anyone in their team. Eventually, we could track the IP address and find where this connection originated from and blocked its access to the system. Pay closer attention to potential security risks by making all connections in your network visible. Are you interested in our security assessments? Scan the code or message us at 7

UNUSED SERVICES SCADA COMMUNICATION CONFIGURATION ERRORS MOST FREQUENT SECURITY RISKS in plant networks DETECTING CONFIGURATION CHANGES Open/unused services offer a disproportionate increase of opportunities for hackers to attack your automation or SCADA system. Thankfully, we can easily detect these unused services through network monitoring. Here are some common unused services we found during our assessments: › IPv6: Mostly activated on PCs, sometimes on IEDS. IPv6 was never actually used but provided several attack vectors in the network. › Windows file sharing: The file sharing service was always activated on PCs and Windows-based RTUs and Gateways, but not used. › PTPv2: It was enabled by default on some industrial switches, even if it has never been used. Simply turning off these open/unused services will decrease the number of cyber risks to your assets. Misconfiguring RTU and SCADA devices can slow down communication and might result in failed transmissions for critical on-site events. For example, in a European substation, MMS Reports were configured to be sent to the wrong client IP address. After resolving these configuration errors, there was a verifiable improvement in the IED’s communication speed. Checking impeded communication speed will lower the operational risk of obstructed response processes. In a North America substation, we detected misconfigured GOOSE messages. This problem occurred because two individual engineering parties configured the devices. In turn, this lack of communication between engineers caused communication problems between these OT devices. We discovered that certain remote command activities in the substation didn’t function properly due to invalid interlocking conditions. This means they wouldn’t have been able to operate their switchgears remotely in urgent scenarios. This case showed me that minor GOOSE communication issues could cause more significant plant problems. Therefore, we still offer these basic security assessments for free, allowing us to contact other power plants, substations, and control centers to further our knowledge. ? × Undocumented external connections accessing IEDs & switches directly Outdated firmware with known vulnerabilities Unused services Unauthorized access Usually, these security problems are fostered by functional problems, such as: Configuration issues in IEDs, RTUs, and network switches Time synchronization failures Network redundancy issues 8

DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION Ongoing changes caused by digital technology Digital transformation is on the tip of everyone’s tongue. Are you already in the middle of restructuring your company? Or are you just planning the first steps to start the digital transformation? That’s great! – Listen to our latest podcast series about “digital transformation in the power industry”. The term digitalization is often used to describe the digital transformation. However, it’s misleading because digitalization refers to transforming existing analog content and processes into digital data and procedures. You could say it’s one of the first steps in follow-up automation processes. Digital transformation, by comparison, is a much broader concept: it’s a process of ongoing change caused by digital technologies. We in the power industry and other industry sectors have to cope with these fundamental changes and the restructuring of entire areas. In our latest podcast series, our experts share some ideas and knowledge about how the digital transformation affects our profession. DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION SERIES PART 1 9

Lukas Klingenschmid discusses the challenges of implementing digital transformation and data validation. A summary of his main points is as follows (you can hear more detailed information in episodes 2 and 4 with Juan Carlos Sánchez-Calle and David Gopp): 1. Digitalization adapts offline tasks to the online world with a harmonized and standardized ruleset. 2. Automating (repetitive) tasks is crucial for relieving the workforce, leaving more time to focus on the core tasks. 3. Data quality is essential for building up meaningful digitalized systems from the start. Automating the validity of test results helps ensure that the correct information is processed. 4. Incorrect test results can have severe (monetary) consequences for the operator. Lukas Klingenschmid, Product Manager, OMICRON In the first episode Martin Pfanner and Juan-Carlos SánchezCalle give us a general overview and their insights about digital transformation in the power industry. Below is a summary of their statements from the first episode. Digital transformation should begin with a clear goal. The goal is usually a process that needs to be improved or a new business opportunity that should be realized. Data and digital transformation create a virtuous cycle that pushes innovation. More data creates the need for new digital solutions, and the latest digital solutions generate more data. 3. Digital transformation changes how value is created and delivered to customers. 4. Digital transformation is a cultural change that requires companies to change how their tasks are completed. 5. To be successful in the age of digital transformation, creating a culture of teamwork and breaking down functional, geographic, or departmental silos is essential. „The digital transformation opens the door to an exciting evolutionary phase in our industry that creates opportunities for new solutions that result in improved power systems, satisfied customers, and better business results. A sound data management strategy must be implemented for the transformation to succeed. We’re here to support you in this process and provide all the tools necessary for digitally transforming the testing process in electrical power systems.” Juan Carlos Sánchez-Calle and Martin Pfanner, Product Managers, OMICRON 1. 2. 10

In the 3rd episode, OMICRON cyber security experts Thomas Friedel and Eugenio Carvalheira discuss the importance of cyber security in the digital transformation and how it plays a critical role in power system infrastructures: “When considering the changes that the digital transformation will have on power industry, it’s imperative to keep the utility’s cybersecurity up to date with the latest technology. Attention should be paid to the fact that solutions primarily developed for office IT cannot be used in the power industry’s Operation Technology (OT) networks due to their different requirements. Ignoring aspects of OT puts the energy system at risk in regions or entire countries. Therefore, involving OT experts in the selection process for power grid cybersecurity solutions for the power grid is not simply an option, but a necessity.” LISTEN TO THE PODCAST Interested in this topic? Be sure to listen to our first Energy Talks podcast series about digital transformation in the power industry. Scan the QR-Code or visit: Listen to the 4th episode about data validation, where David Gopp explains how tricky data management can be. Below is a summary of his thoughts. 1. Dataquality tries toprovide faultless data through the entire process from collection, changing, and distribution. 2. Data validation considers the data in the context of the application and tries to identify invalid/insufficient quality data. 3. Data validation is an essential part of any data handling task whether you’re in the field collecting information, analyzing or assessing data, or preparing to present data to stakeholders. 4. Analyzing measurement results based on invalid or insufficient quality data won’t produce a reliable assessment. Thomas Friedel and Eugenio Carvalheira, Product Managers, OMICRON David Gopp, Product Manager, OMICRON 11

PRICK UP YOUR EARS! Energy Talks celebrates one year on the air DOWNLOADS & STREAMS >33,247 (Including numbers from all podcast platforms & YouTube) 20 DISCUSSED TOPICS Top topics: 1. Digital Transformation in the Power Industry 2. Partial Discharge Testing and Monitoring 3. Cybersecurity TOP COUNTRIES 1. United States 2. India 3. Germany 4. Australia 5. Austria EPISODES >38 SUBSCRIBERS 3,438 EXPERT GUESTS 51 Although our podcast is only available in English, we are proud to have listeners from 160 COUNTRIES This year we are celebrating one year of Energy Talks, our regular podcast series that features discussions with experts and peers about power system testing topics. We started Energy Talks in January 2021 with the goal of sharing knowledge, which is a very important value for us. We want to share with you some interesting statistics about our podcast series over the past months. Energy Talks is available on our podcast page, on YouTube and all popular podcast platforms. If you are not already listening, we invite you to tune in and subscribe to Energy Talks as not to miss an episode. 12

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 This is just a short note to say that I’m regularly listening to the OMICRON Energy Talks podcast series, and I highly appreciate the topics and speakers. At Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen, I’m responsible for the digital twin representation of a transformer from engineering to documentation and performance monitoring, along with integrating it into our customers’ ISO 55000 process. So, I was very curious listening to your Digitalization podcasts series. In addition, I found the novel approaches that Dr. Karsten Viereck and Christoph Engelen discussed about diagnosing and monitoring transformers and OLTC with vibracoustic sensors extremely valuable. It’s always great to hear the story behind the stories. Since I’m an active and regular listener to your series – time has always been well spent and insightful with new perspectives. Bastian Fischer, Head of Portfolio- and Business Development, BU AUTOMATION “ “ As a switchgear technician, it is nice to hear about this topic on YouTube in podcast format, just like some of my other favorite shows! Feedback from a podcast listener “ PRODUCTION TIME ~10 hours per episode INVOLVED EMPLOYEES ~6 per episode – like the fixed ensemble cast of “Friends” MATERIAL AVAILABLE FOR LISTENING >14.5 hours – corresponding to two complete days of work, free of charge EPISODE LENGTH ~26 minutes – like watching one episode of “Big Bang Theory” LISTEN TO ALL PODCAST EPISODES Be sure to listen to our Energy Talks Podcast Series and benefit from our expert’s knowledge and experiences. Scan the QR-Code or visit: Subscribe to Energy Talks on your favourite podcast platform and give it a star-rating on Spotify or Apple Podcast Star. We welcome your questions and feedback simply send us an email to I just emailed to say that I’ve been listening to the podcast series, and so far, I’ve found it extremely interesting. I’m an Electrician based in Glasgow, Scotland, and my current job involves carrying out controls upgrades on diesel generators and switchgear throughout the UK; I have been listening to podcasts while driving long distances. I found episode 3 with Gustav Lundqvist of Kraftdiagnos particularly interesting. It was great to hear the story of someone using the OMICRON test kit in the field and get an insight into the type of work out there. Feedback from a podcast listener 13

«COMPANO 100 is not a simple test device, but the way it communicates with the user has been simplified, and that’s what I like.» Serhat Tutal, Marke Elektronik, Türkiye Serhat Tutal: “In Türkiye, COMPANO 100 is the right product at the right time. The electrical grid structure in our country was split into generation, transmission, and distribution roughly 25 years ago. As a result, the distribution sector has to cope with the loss of test experience in some cases. Furthermore, distribution utilities rent the grid from the government for a specific period of time. Therefore, some of them have a limited budget for testing. With its multi-functionality and easy-to-use user interface, COMPANO 100 is the perfect match for this industry in Türkiye. Large utilities use this device intensively in their daily business. For example, we delivered 125 units to Enerjisa. This is an impressive demonstration of the fact that customers with simpler applications can also benefit from the quality that OMICRON is known for. This is also true of COMPANO 100’s battery – we’ve had zero battery-related complaints. Of course, battery operation is a game-changer. In my opinion, continuous software improvements and the great teamwork we’ve experienced with OMICRON are also important factors for success. Thanks to this, our customers benefit from outstanding after-sales support, for example, when they need a loaner test set quickly. I’m very optimistic about the future of COMPANO 100 in Türkiye. With its wide application range, it’s a perfect match for distribution utilities and an ideal fit for industrial plants.” ROCKING THE MIDDLE EAST AND AFRICA COMPANO 100 captures new markets in a flash Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Türkiye are four countries with very different power system infrastructure and diverse testing requirements. Still, one commonality is the interest of the energy sector in the small, battery-operated COMPANO 100. The feedback from many enthusiastic customers confirms that the device meets a whole slew of different basic testing applications perfectly. Why is that? We talked to our Sales Partners in the Middle East and Africa and asked them why the compact test set is in such high demand. High demand in Türkiye: Marke Elektronik had to empty their biggest meeting room to cope with the large amount of devices ready for delivery to their customers. 14

Mohamed Taha: “COMPANO 100 comes with an unbeatable cost/­ performance ratio. For most customers, the device’s functionality is sufficient, which is probably why most utilities in Saudi Arabia are already working with it. Large companies appreciate it. For example, Saudi Electricity Company ordered 100 units for their staff. Our customers mainly perform singlephase relay tests, CT and VT ratio tests, measure circuit breaker resistances, and check the polarity and wiring. When it comes to power systems, safety is a priority in Saudi Arabia. Thus, contractors are searching for reasonable and safe solutions. It’s great that COMPANO 100 can also be used to perform grounding tests and step and touch voltage measurements. Therefore, the device is also interesting for panel builders and service providers. One of our customers uses COMPANO 100 for a very simple onephase test. 50 Amperes have to be injected for just 1 second. Up to now, two test engineers were needed to carry a large 30 kg (66 lb) generator and a 25 kg (55 lb) current injector to the site to perform the test. With COMPANO 100, they only need one compact 10 kg (22 lb) test kit, and thanks to the digital output, they’re also able to perform tests with a high level of accuracy. That’s truly unique.” «In Saudi Arabia, safety is a priority when it comes to power systems. It’s great that COMPANO 100 can also be used to perform grounding tests and step and touch voltage measurements.» Mohamed Taha, Mejdaf, Saudi Arabia Customers in Saudi Arabia searching for both safe and versatile solutions appreciate the cost/ performance ratio of COMPANO 100. Nigeria Saudi Arabia Türkiye Kuwait 15

Mohamed Al Saleh: “I’m impressed by COMPANO 100’s battery performance: despite having to cope with very high temperatures at testing sites in Kuwait, there haven’t been any complaints regarding the battery so far. Our customers value the test set because it’s diverse, lightweight, and mobile. This makes it easy to carry from one site to another within a short period of time. There is no other product that combines protection relay testing, micro-ohm measurement, polarity checks, and grounding resistance in one device. This is why we consistently receive positive feedback whenever we present the COMPANO 100 to local authorities or distribution and transmission utilities. Thanks to our close collaboration with the OMICRON team, our customers also appreciate the fast responses they receive to troubleshooting issues. Due to these factors, the market is being boosted in the right direction for COMPANO 100, and we expect to see significant orders in the coming months.” «I’m impressed by the battery performance. There haven’t been any complaints so far – despite the very high temperatures in Kuwait.» Mohamed Al Saleh, Energy Solutions, Kuwait Nitin Mahajan: “Nigeria is a very large country with a lot of transmission stations. The primary energy transmission utility in Nigeria, TCN, ordered 40 COMPANO 100 units for daily tests throughout the country. Its user-friendly software is beneficial for the single-phase test set. It’s effortless to handle, even for testers without much technical competence. After defining a few test settings, you can already start testing with the device. What I also like about COMPANO 100 is that it can maintain a high level of accuracy for an extended period of time. This is a significant benefit since calibration can be quite challenging on the African continent. This is especially true in the northern part of our country, where there are a lot of soil and grounding problems. With COMPANO 100, our customers no longer require different testing equipment. With a single handy device, they can test the grounding impedance, step and touch voltages in addition to various other tests for their assets. With auxiliary power unavailable in many areas of Nigeria, battery operation is also a significant advantage. COMPANO 100’s extensive application package is fantastic. It also makes the device very interesting for privately-held distribution companies in Nigeria. I see a bright future for this test set in our country.” «In Africa, calibration is a challenge. COMPANO 100 can maintain a high level of accuracy over a long period of time. That’s a major benefit.» Nitin Mahajan, T&D Technologies, Nigeria With COMPANO 100, the Ministry of Electricity and Water in Kuwait conveniently tests various protection functions with pre-defined test sequences and output parameters. 16

Ahmed Abdelwahab, Engineering services, OMICRON Bahrain Ahmed Abdelwahab: “Burning ring main units in the medium-voltage level are a common problem for many distribution utilities worldwide. One of the main reasons for this is incorrectly parametrized protection relays. When the circuit breaker doesn’t trip during a fault, the fatal consequences can be cable fires or burning power transformers due to overload and oil overheating. Therefore, testing the protection equipment is essential. This can be challenging when self-powered relays are supplied by the current transformer, especially when an electrical power supply is unavailable on site. With COMPANO 100, Saudi Electric Company (SEC) in Saudi Arabia found a convenient solution for overcoming these problems and reducing the associated risks. The battery-operated device allows them to test the proper function of their various self-powered protection relays on site. SEC was already working with COMPANO 100 to evaluate its performance. We contacted them about the possibility of testing self-powered relays in ring main units. With the compact test set, the test engineers could perform this test for the first time. Thanks to its intuitive interface, a demonstration wasn’t even necessary. Aside from that, the evaluation at SEC showed that the versatile test set could fulfill all of their daily basic testing requirements. That’s how the overwhelming success of COMPANO 100 in Saudi Arabia began. We’re pleased that we could improve the test engineers’ routines with many more devices that have since been delivered throughout the kingdom.” CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT We are striving to implement your feedback quickly to constantly improve both the functionality and usability of COMPANO 100. The new software version 2.31 contains several improvements based on feedback from customers in 13 countries around the world. It’s available free-of-charge in our Customer Portal. Download it now: One of the main reasons for burning ring main units in the medium-voltage level is incorrectly parametrized protection relays. AN EXPLOSION OF SUCCESS – HOW IT ALL STARTED 17

FROM NEWCOMER TO TECHNOLOGY LEADER 10 Years of CIBANO 500 Was the CIBANO 500 designed specifically for testing high-voltage circuit breakers? Stefan Achberger: The focus on high-voltage equipment resulted from stringent demands placed on testing these circuit breakers. Connecting large breakers is very time-consuming. The terminals are several meters above ground, so we have to use ladders or risers. It quickly became apparent that the tests had to be feasible without any rewiring, with as few cables and components as possible. To ensure the safety of our customers at all times, we also must be able to test the circuit breakers with both sides grounded. The result was a modular concept using the CB MC2s. These modules only weigh 1.2 kg (2.64 lb) with a single connection to the main device and short connecting cables to the breaking elements. Compared with other systems, this concept was simpler and needed less than half the testing time required by typical circuit breakers in a high-voltage application. Nowadays, we can also test more sophisticated breakers with four or more breaking chambers per phase without any rewiring. We produced a video that shows how a breaker like this is connected and tested: In the previous edition, we asked a Dutch testing provider why they chose our circuit breaker test system several years ago and whether they were satisfied with it. Today, we’re going to look at CIBANO 500’s history over the last ten years. OMICRON Application Engineer Stefan Achberger is someone who knows all the ins and outs of the system for years. In our interview, he explained the development of the device from its launch to the present day. 18

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 What’s the situation with gas-insulated switchgear like? Having both sides grounded is a safety requirement that also applies to gas-insulated switchgear. Three years after the device was launched, we developed a new measurement method that could guarantee it. Current sensor measurement (CSM) uses Rogowski coils to measure the time when the current in the ground path changes. The CSM method has rapidly established itself as the new standard for timing analysis in GIS, and other manufacturers are now offering it as well. The measurement method is described in this video: What advantages does the CIBANO 500 offer for medium-voltage circuit breakers? It’s also been possible to test medium-voltage breakers with efficiency. Since its market launch in 2013, it has tended to be more straightforward. The internal voltage source was beneficial, as the breakers are often fully withdrawn. However, its functionality has been extended dramatically in recent years. A measurement method for voltagebased timing (VTM) measurements in sealed installations was introduced, followed by tests for undervoltage coils and overcurrent releases. In the latest 4.90 version of the Primary Test Manager™ (PTM) control software, the VTM measurement is also analyzed automatically via the capacitive taps. MISSED THE FIRST PART? In Part 1 you can read why leading testing providers are opting for CIBANO 500. Scan the QR code or visit: 19

VISIT THE OMICRON ACADEMY: All these tests are included in the medium-voltage package, along with motion measurements using the CB TN3 module (via digital and analog sensors). The following video illustrates how medium-voltage circuit breakers are measured: What’s unique about the way CIBANO 500 operates? Smooth operation is always a key factor for users. The Primary Test Manager™ (PTM) software provides guided test sequences and automatically stores all the results in the integrated database. As the PTM software is continuously being developed and refined, the CIBANO 500 system remains state-of-the-art. In addition to controlling the device, this modern interface does much more. For example, it also attaches photos using the PTMate app to user-defined test documents in Excel format and a common database for the entire team. What other trends can we expect to see in the future? As a result of these volatile times, we’re seeing more and more customers returning to perform previously outsourced measurement activities themselves to remain independent. The modular nature of the CIBANO 500 hardware allows it to be upgraded easily to meet future testing requirements. In light of the digitalization of many processes, having a modern database application with cloud functionality will better equip customers to meet future challenges. If you’re interested in expanding your expertise, check out the OMICRON Academy, which offers a wide range of relevant training courses. Thank you for speaking with us. 20

APPLICATION KNOWLEDGE “TO GO” Webinar recordings from the OMICRON Academy Wide-ranging topics concerning our testing and diagnostics solutions are explained clearly by our Academy instructors in more than 45 selected webinar recordings. The free recordings convey technical knowledge from a theoretical perspective all the way to real-world applications with ease. Thanks to the efforts of our global team, the recordings are available to anyone interested in them. Everything from the production of live webinars to the distribution of the recordings has followed one overarching principle. That principle is giving our customers access to the knowledge within the Academy, even when we’re all faced with restrictions. “Instructor-led training aims to impart practical knowledge and encourage a lively exchange of ideas within the group, which is always appreciated. Before Covid, we didn’t see a demand for online webinars. However, during the first lockdown, everything changed very quickly”, explains Claudia Brich from the Process Management team at the OMICRON Academy. Global webinar offer An international team extending well beyond the OMICRON Academy set to work immediately, making a monumental effort to develop an entire webinar portfolio in a short amount of time. These webinars can now be accessed from all over the world. “Our instructors and organizational team 21

normally led courses in the Academy training centers or on customer sites. But now they were focused exclusively on delivering instructive live webinars for our customers”, explains Claudia. The organizational breakdown into different regions also made it possible to distribute various topics targeted around the globe. “We arranged the webinars according to key products in various time zones so that our customers always had access to a range of courses for eight months. We recorded these webinars and were surprised by what happened next.” The webinars were enthusiastically received, and many viewers wanted to watch them again. “However, the demand for the Academy webinar recordings posed several problems for us. We wondered which recordings should we select, how we would make them available, and where people could go to find them?”, recalls Claudia. Quality First We adopted a multi-stage quality process that helped us make the right choices. “We designed an evaluation form containing various criteria and critical factors such as the quality of the audio, language, and video image. At the same time, we developed a process that listened to the recordings and picked out the best ones. Next, our product managers checked every aspect of the products and the software, and only then was a webinar released. The process of a quality-check is very time consuming, so the recordings are currently only available in English and German”, explains Claudia. Recordings on the Academy Website The webinar recordings are available free of charge on the OMICRON Academy website. We use the Cisco Webex platform, which is also where the live webinars were recorded. There’s a short registration process to «I want to thank you for your free webinars. I learned a lot from them. I would like to request a recording of the video from this webinar.» Customer feedback PARTICIPANTS 12,656 since 2020 LIVE WEBINARS 344 in the first 4 months of 2020 AVERAGE DURATION 1h12min Shortest webinar: 22min; longest webinar: 1h 55min WEBINAR RECORDINGS >35 in English >45 in German 22

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 go through before the video starts, and then you can then dive right into the subject area of your choice. “Naturally, we were a little worried that the free webinar offer would have an adverse effect on the interest level of our instructor-led and online courses. However, that’s not been the case”, summarizes Claudia. “It’s had quite the opposite effect. The webinars offer a quick sample of various technical subjects. Course participants can then ask questions in a more targeted manner and use the expertise of the instructors and the time spent with them to optimum effect. We see this as a real benefit.” The flexibility of the package has been particularly well-received. More than 3,700 visitors have already viewed the English-language recordings alone. The webinars provide access to knowledge whenever and wherever it’s needed. Want to take a closer look at our webinar recordings? You’ll find an overview at Everyone involved in creating the webinars received a booklet as a small token of thanks. Among other things, the booklet includes positive comments from webinar viewers. Participants get a free first impression of our products and the wide-­ ranging Academy offer. Powerful Teamwork “We’re delighted with the success of the program we’ve created together. It’s only been possible thanks to outstanding global teamwork. We wanted to acknowledge the efforts of our teammates appropriately, so we’ve created a booklet containing images, observations, quotes from chats, and some of the positive feedback we’ve received. The teams have all been pleasantly surprised by this material. So we want to extend an enormous and heartfelt thank you to everyone who helped get this project up and running”, concludes Claudia. 23

WHEN AN OUTAGE IS COSTLY Efficient testing for ensuring fault-free high-speed transfer systems Industrial facilities use motors on production lines that need to run without interruption to avoid severe financial impacts on business. Motors can also be critical to the continuous operation of power plants. These large motors are designed with two separate infeeds and a high-speed transfer system (motor bus transfer – MBT) to ensure production continuity and avoid damage. This system is tasked with switching between the infeeds when required. RelaySimTest 4.1 can be used to ensure that the MBT system also works properly in all situations. Testing MBT systems during commissioning is challenging because the complex interplay between motors, infeeds, and loads must be simulated. The models must be able to accurately simulate the behavior of motors and the interaction of plant components during regular operation and faults. What happens to the voltage in the busbar if the infeed is disconnected? What happens when the new infeed is connected? RelaySimTest 4.1 reveals how the MBT system evaluates the method selection and execution used to transfer the old infeed to the new one and shows how the MBT system functions. An infeed transfer may be scheduled or may be required during an emergency. The busbar voltage’s behavior must be calculated accurately by the MBT system before switching to the new infeed. Firstly, this is the only way to ensure that the transfer does not cause any damage to the motor, the coupling, or the connected loads. Secondly, it ensures that the motors’ processes continue to run with as little interruption as possible. These 24

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 requirements result in the typical automated infeed transfer methods shown in Figure 1 (fast transfer, in-phase transfer, and transfer with under-voltage or a specific delay time). In the event of fast transfer, the MBT system attempts to execute a transfer before the amplitude difference and phase shift between the motor and the new infeed are too great. This is only possible under specific conditions and requires the quantities in the motor bus and the new infeed to be measured within one cycle. In addition, a circuit breaker can connect the new infeed within one cycle. The in-phase transfer method connects the motor bus to the new infeed as soon as the phase angle between the motor bus «RelaySimTest 4.1 can be used to ensure that the MBT system works properly in all situations.» 0 –π –2π InPhase Residual Voltage Fast Phase Di erence (radiare) Bus Voltage (p.u) Time Zone 2 Zone 3 1.0 0.5 0.33 0.0 Zone 1 Figure 1: Motor bus transfer zones: Fast transfer, in-phase transfer and residual voltage transfer 25

and new infeed approximates zero or moves into this range. Suppose this type of connection is not possible. In that case, the MBT system will make the connection when the residual motor voltage has dropped to a particular value or a specific amount of time has elapsed. The logic integrated into the MBT system determines the best method during these circumstances. The asynchronous motor model integrated with RelaySimTest enables realistic simulations. An initial MBT stability test is conducted by simulating start-up behavior. The motor start-up and the associated under-voltage must not initiate a transfer during this period. In other testing scenarios, the switch-off behavior or motor-inertia is simulated, as well as the circuit breaker, infeed, motor, and load components interplay. The software then calculates the currents and voltages for regular operation and fault cases. This allows both transfer methods to be tested and the integrated logic to determine the method that should be used. During regular operation, it is possible to close the circuit breaker from the new infeed before the circuit breaker from the old infeed is opened. However, this “hot” transfer cannot be used during a fault. When a fault occurs, the MBT system will initiate an open transfer for this specific reason. This means it opens the circuit breaker from the old infeed before closing the circuit breaker from the new infeed so that both circuit breakers remain open momentarily. RelaySimTest simulates both “hot” and open transfers. In the RelaySimTest grid editor, the primary system is replicated first. Figure 2 shows a typical industry topology with a coupling circuit breaker that can switch from one infeed to another with the infeed circuit breakers. In addition to testing the behavior of the MBT system during transfer, the entire protection system can also be tested. This includes all protection relays in the system, such as the motor protection relay and the infeed relays. This makes it possible to verify whether or not the motor protection remains stable during the transfer. In addition to testing the transfer’s behavior, the entire motor protection can be tested, for example, by triggering a fault in the motor supply line or the motor terminals. The same test documents as those used in the laboratory can also be used for commissioning in the field. Further models integrated with RelaySimTest enable testing for feeder protection, busbar protection, line protection or transformer protection, and recloser systems. Version 4.1 can perform all these simulations, and a free download is available on: A software license and an OMICRON test set are required for outputting test values. «In addition to testing the behavior of the MBT system during transfer, the entire protection system can also be tested.» Figure 2: Example showing industrial motor bus with double infeeds and coupling circuit breaker Y y6 M Y y6 M M M MBT 26

A POWERFUL COMBINATION FOR POWER TRANSFORMER TESTING In-depth on-load tap changer analysis with TESTRANO 600 and PTM 4.90 27

Power transformers play a vital role in the electrical power grid. In order to avoid any unforeseeable outages, it is of utmost importance that the transformer and its internal components work reliably. The on-load tap changer (OLTC) is one of the essential components. By adjusting the turns ratio of the transformer, a stable system voltage is maintained in the electrical grid. The OLTC has to withstand the electrical stress as well as the mechanical and thermal stresses that are imposed by the load current. Many diagnostic tools have been developed to assess the condition of power transformers, ranging from oil analysis to static and dynamic resistance measurements (DRM). The DRM records the change in current during the switching operation. This way, the auxiliary contacts, and the commutating resistors can be evaluated, and a timing analysis can be performed. With the release of PTM 4.90, two powerful OLTC-focused features were added to the testing capabilities of the TESTRANO 600: The vibroacoustic measurement (VAM) and the three-phase OLTC Scan option. In the following examples below, we’ll take a look at both features and how they can be utilized to facilitate OLTC testing and lead to an in-depth OLTC condition assessment. 1st feature – VAM The vibro-acoustic measurement (VAM) approach is based on recording vibration patterns produced during the tap switch operation. The new measurement module VAM1 has been developed in cooperation with the OLTC manufacturer Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen in Germany. The VAM1 unit allows you to connect up to three piezo-electric sensors that are mounted on the transformer tank wall using magnetic fasteners. The vibration patterns produced during the switching operation depend on the internal design and the switching principle of the tap changer. Therefore, these patterns are considered unique for each unit and can be used as a reference for future measurements. The sensor placement plays a vital role in obtaining sufficiently strong readings. The best results are obtained when the sensor is placed as close to the OLTC as possible. The new test in PTM 4.90 supports the user by checking the data quality of the recorded traces. If it is unsatisfactory, e. g., due to weak signal strength, the software will mark the corresponding data set and suggest some troubleshooting advice. There are two options for carrying out the VAM test. The first is performing the measurement during a transformer maintenance outage (offline). In contrast, the VAM test can be conducted while the transformer remains in service (online). The findings of such a vibration analysis can then be considered when prioritizing the maintenance activity of an OLTC fleet. The raw data, sampled at 250 kHz, is transformed into the frequencytime domain using a continuous wavelet transformation. This so-called ft-diagram illustrates the various frequency components of the vibrations. It can be used to analyze the overall signal quality (signal-to-noise ratio) and identify possible external influencing factors such as disturbing noise sources. Figure 1 depicts an example of the ft-diagram, showing the start of the tap switch operation (left), the tap selector activity (middle), and finally, the diverter switch operation (right). The color coding indicates the signal strength, ranging from weak (blue) to strong (red). The signal is integrated into the frequency domain, which results in the so-called envelope curve. This 28

Magazine | Issue 2 2022 40 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 30 20 10 0 kHz ms Powered by Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen 30 20 10 0 –30 –20 –10 –40 Powered by Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 ms Decibel 0 4 8 12 16 A 200 300 400 500 600 700 s A (A-N) B (B-N) C (C-N) curve is the actual fingerprint of the tap switch. The results’ assessment is based on comparing these envelope curves with reference values. A comparison functionality in PTM 4.90 helps the test engineer check the results for any deviations which could indicate mechanical changes in the OLTC. Figure 2 shows the comparison of two tap switch recordings. On the top, two envelope curves illustrate the high reproducibility of the curves. The diagram on the bottom shows the comparison of the corresponding DRM curves. The most complete data set can be obtained when performing an offline measurement, consisting of the VAM and DRM traces and the motor current recording. Both measurements yield complementary results, which help minimize individual diagnostic blind spots from either method. The synchronous recording of the VAM and the DRM curves allows you to assess the entire switching operation from motor start to finish. 2nd feature – three-phase OLTC scan The other new feature for the TESTRANO 600 in PTM 4.90 is the threephase OLTC scan that complements the existing single-phase OLTC scan solution. By measuring all three phases simultaneously, as shown in figure 3, only one up/ down test cycle is required, effectively reducing the overall testing time by 66%. Additionally, a continuous recording has been introduced, illustrating the current behavior throughout the entire tap range. To assess the results, the test engineer validates that there are no current interruptions and evaluates the timing of each switching operation. The synchronicity between the phases can be measured using multiple cursors to identify possible linkage problems in the phases. Figure 3: Three-phase OLTC scan measurement curve Figure 1: The frequency-time diagram helps to evaluate the overall signal quality. Figure 2: Comparison of envelope and DRM curves «The vibration patterns are considered unique for each unit and can be used as a reference comparison for future measurements.» 4 3.5 3 4.5 5 A Powered by Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 ms 29

Following two decades of increasing acceptance and application, the IEC 61850 standard is now well-established, and network operators are increasingly deploying relevant devices in substations around the world. The prevalence of Sampled Values (SV) in the process bus of digital substations was significantly increased by the IEC 61850-9-2 Light Edition (9-2-LE). This guideline makes the configuration and interoperability of devices more accessible. This article explains how the IEC 61869-9 standard enables you to optimize the network load in the process bus. Although the 9-2-LE guideline defines the process bus communication methods, it provides few options for changing the SV in the process bus. This guideline provides a fixed SV dataset for current and voltage values. This definition always contains four currents and four voltages. The current and voltage values for the phases and the neutral conductor of a three-phase system are sampled at 80 samples per cycle for protection applications and 256 samples per cycle for power quality applications. The data packet in 9-2-LE is understandable at first glance. However, it generates unnecessary data traffic if all the variables aren’t used. Depending on the application, significant unused data volumes may arise that unnecessarily load the data network and the connected IEDs. In 2016, the IEC 61869 standard superseded the previous IEC 60044 standard as the definition of current and voltage transformers. Section IEC 61869-9 provides a digital interface compatible with 9-2-LE. Further SV variants are also defined that enable multiple sampling values (ASDU – application service data unit) in a network packet. Having several ASDUs per package saves on bandwidth as the ratio of the payload to the header is optimized and the package rate on the network is reduced. This interface also allows datasets to be configured such that only individual currents or voltages are transferred. It also enables multiple current and voltage systems to be combined into one SV dataset. The following is an example of how significant the overall savings can be. One example is a 1½ circuit breaker system. This system transfers eight currents and four voltages via sampled values for one feeder. Suppose these eight currents and four voltages are sent using 9-2-LE datasets. In that case, two 9-2-LE SV streams are required as only four currents are possible for each 9-2-LE SV stream dataset. However, if it is implemented as an IEC 61869-9 dataset, a single SV stream containing the eight currents and four voltages REDUCING THE NETWORK LOAD IN DIGITAL SUBSTATIONS With configurable datasets in Sampled Values according to IEC 61869-9 Fixed Dataset 4×Current + 4×Voltage (9-2 LE) Flexible Dataset Reduced Data Rate compared with 9‑2 LE Transformer type Number of MU/ Streams Data rate 50 Hz (Mbit/s) Data rate 60 Hz (Mbit/s) Number of MU/ Streams Data rate (4,800/2ASDU) (Mbit/s) with 50 Hz (4,000/ 1ASDU) with 60 Hz (4,800/ 1ASDU) 3-Winding 3 3×5.4 = 16.2 3×6.5 = 19.5 1 6.5 60% 67% 5-Winding 5 5×5.4 = 27.0 5×6.5 = 32.5 1 9.0 67% 72% Table 1: Reduction in data rate in a transformer with three and five windings Magazine | Issue 2 2022 30