Gas-Insulated Switchgear (GIS) Testing
Compact gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) represent a space-saving alternative to classic air-insulated installations. The low insulation distances are guaranteed by the high dielectric strength of insulating gas, the most common of which is sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). A perfect condition of the GIS is essential for its reliable operation. A malfunction of a system-critical GIS would be a calamity and therefore supervision is inevitable in order to make such an event as unlikely as possible.
Intrusion Detection (GIS)Show more
Intrusion Detection (GIS)
The number of cyber attacks against critical control systems in production facilities and energy supply companies keeps increasing. Substations and their networks represent critical attack vectors and thus their operation and maintenance processes must be included in an effective cybersecurity risk assessment based on the monitoring of threats to IT security, such as illegal encodings and unauthorized control operations, but also communication errors, such as time synchronization problems.
Fault Recording (GIS)Show more
Fault Recording (GIS)
The GOOSE signals of an IEC 61850 controlled substation contain the trip commands and stamps for the time of opening of the breaker main contacts. These time markers can be used to measure the opening time in the event of a fault. These real fault records are particularly valuable for later analysis, as they are neither generated in a targeted manner, nor are they repeatable.
Circuit Breaker Operation Time (In-Service) (GIS)Show more
Circuit Breaker Operation Time (In-Service) (GIS)
In-service testing methods First trip and Voltage Based Timing (VTM) show degradation accumulated during long idle times better than their off-service counterparts because to prepare a breaker for off-service testing, it has to be operated at least once. For the First trip test method connections are made at the trip coils and the CT’s secondary side. For the Voltage Based Timing (VTM) measurement method, the connections are made at the trip coils and the VT’s secondary side.