Grounding Systems

Grounding systems are essential for the safe and reliable operation of electrical power systems. Grounding systems allow a proper connection from your system's neutral to global earth potential. During a single-phase fault, the fault current flows back to the neutral via the grounding system which is ideally as low ohmic as possible. This current causes a potential rise of your entire grounding system towards the global earth potential.

The relevant standards EN50522, IEEE81 and IEEE 80/81 define maximum values for the potential rise which depend on the maximum single-phase fault duration of a system. These standards also mention limitations of maximum allowed step and touch voltages in and around the substation. Single-phase faults can have harmful or even lethal consequences, e.g. for humans and animals, when the maximum allowed step and touch voltages are exceeded.

Solutions

Ground Impedance

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Ground Impedance

Ground impedance is the quality of the connection between the grounding system and its surrounding soil. An increased value is an indication of deterioration. In the event of a fault, the fault current and the ground impedance lead to a so-called Ground or Earth Potential Rise (GPR, EPR).

Step and Touch Voltage Tests

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Step and Touch Voltage Tests

Step- and touch voltages are caused by potential differences in the substation or by being too close to the grounding system when a fault occurs on a power line or within the power system. The measurement verifies that no critical potential differences for the human body have occurred.

Videos

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Measure ground impedance using existing overhead lines or power cables

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COMPANO 100 Do It Yourself tutorial 05: Micro Ohmmeter

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